Tuesday, 13 March 2012

Video game console

A video bold animate is an alternate ball computer or customized computer arrangement that produces a video affectation arresting which can be acclimated with a affectation accessory (a television, monitor, etc.) to affectation a video game. The appellation "video bold console" is acclimated to analyze a apparatus advised for bodies to shop for and use primarily for arena video amateur on a TV. As of 2007, it is estimated that video bold consoles accept fabricated up 75% of the world's gaming market.1

First generation

Although the aboriginal computer amateur appeared in the 1950s,2 they were based about agent displays, not analog video. It was not until 1972 that Magnavox appear the aboriginal home video bold animate which could be affiliated to a TV set—the Magnavox Odyssey, invented by Ralph H. Baer. The Odyssey was initially alone moderately successful, and it was not until Atari's arcade bold Pong affected video games, that the accessible began to booty added apprehension of the arising industry. By the autumn of 1975 Magnavox, accedence to the acceptance of Pong, annulled the Odyssey and appear a scaled bottomward adaptation that alone played Pong and hockey, the Odyssey 100. A second, "higher end" console, the Odyssey 200, was appear with the 100 and added onscreen scoring, up to four players, and a third game—Smash. Almost accompanying appear with Atari's own home Pong animate through Sears, these consoles jump-started the customer market. As with the arcade market, the home bazaar was anon abounding by committed consoles that played simple pong and pong-derived games.

Second generation

Fairchild appear the Fairchild Video Entertainment System (VES) in 1976. While there had been antecedent bold consoles that acclimated cartridges, either the cartridges had no advice and served the aforementioned action as flipping switches (the Odyssey) or the animate itself was abandoned and the armament independent all of the bold components. The VES, however, independent a programmable dent so its cartridges alone bare a distinct ROM dent to abundance dent instructions.

Third generation

In 1983, Nintendo appear the Family Computer (or Famicom) in Japan. Like the ColecoVision, the Famicom accurate high-resolution sprites and tiled backgrounds, but with added colors. This accustomed Famicom amateur to be best and accept added abundant graphics. Nintendo brought their Famicom over to the US in the anatomy of the Nintendo Entertainment Arrangement (NES) in 1985. In the US, video amateur were apparent as a fad that had already passed. To analyze its artefact from earlier video bold consoles, Nintendo acclimated a front-loading armament anchorage agnate to a VCR on the NES, packaged the NES with a Super Mario Brothers bold and a ablaze gun (the Zapper), and originally advertised it as a toy. The artificial "robot" (R.O.B.) was additionally awash as an alone acquirement account and in some cases packaged with the NES system.

Like Space Invaders for the 2600, Nintendo begin its blemish hit bold in Super Mario Bros. Nintendo's success active the video bold industry and fresh consoles were anon alien in the afterward years to attempt with the NES.

Sega's Master Arrangement was advised to attempt with the NES, but never acquired any cogent bazaar allotment in the US and was almost profitable. It fared conspicuously more good in PAL territories, abnormally Brazil.

Fourth generation

Sega regained bazaar allotment by absolution its next-generation console, the Mega Drive/Genesis, which was appear in Japan on October 29, 1988, in the U.S. in August 1989 (renamed as the Sega Genesis) and in Europe in 1990, two years afore Nintendo could absolution the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES).

Sega continued the Mega Drive with the Mega CD/Sega CD, to accommodate added accumulator amplitude for multimedia-based amateur that were again in faddy amid the development community. Later, Sega appear the 32X, which added some of the polygon-processing functionality accepted in fifth-generation machines. However, the borderline was a bartering abortion due to abridgement ofcomputer application support, with developers added agog to apply on added able machines, with a added user base, such as the Saturn that followed anon after.

Other consoles included in the fourth bearing are NEC's TurboGrafx-16 and SNK Playmore's Neo Geo.

Fifth generation

The aboriginal fifth-generation consoles were the Atari Jaguar and the 3DO. Both of these systems were abundant added able than the Super Nintendo Entertainment Arrangement (SNES) or Mega Drive (known as Genesis in North America); they were added acceptable at apprehension polygons, could affectation added onscreen colors, and the 3DO acclimated discs that absolute far added advice than cartridges and were cheaper to produce. Neither of these consoles were austere threats to Sega or Nintendo, though. The 3DO amount added than the SNES and Genesis combined, and the Jaguar was acutely difficult to affairs for, arch to a abridgement of amateur that acclimated its added power. Both consoles would be discontinued in 1996. Bandai alien an Apple Macintosh based animate alleged the Pippin that was added like a low amount computer than a aerial end console, but did ailing in the market.

Nintendo appear amateur like Donkey Kong Country that could affectation a advanced ambit of tones (something accepted in fifth-generation games) by attached the cardinal of hues onscreen, and amateur like Star Fox that acclimated an added dent central of the armament to affectation polygon graphics. Sega followed suit, absolution Vectorman and Virtua Racing (the closing of which acclimated the Sega Virtua Processor).

It was not until Sega's Saturn, Sony's PlayStation, and the Nintendo 64 were appear that fifth bearing consoles started to become popular. The Saturn and PlayStation acclimated CDs to abundance games, while the N64 acclimated cartridges. All three amount far beneath than the 3DO, and were easier to affairs than the Jaguar. The Saturn additionally had 2D sprite administration ability on par with the Neo-Geo.

Atari's Jaguar was appear to action the ascendancy that Nintendo and Sega were angry for. Atari's achievement was that by designing a added able console, it would be able to leapfrog all of the appear systems of the day and accord gamers a technologically above system. The Jaguar eventually achromatic abroad due to a cardinal of reasons. For example, it was difficult to program, appropriately authoritative it too ambiguous to accept acceptable third-party support. Another of the Jaguar's pitfalls was the ascendancy of the ahead accepted systems. In 1995, the releases of the Sega Saturn and the PlayStation brought the end for the Jaguar. The abortion of the Jaguar put Atari into a poor banking bearings and affected it to about-face absorb with JTS Inc., a brief maker of adamantine deejay drives, to anatomy JTS Corporation. The alliance finer concluded the company, which existed as a baby administration for accessory abutment of the Jaguar and the affairs off of Atari's bookish properties.

The 3DO was appear in North America in October 1993. Although appear to abundant fanfare, like the Jaguar, it achromatic out of the bazaar with little popularity. The arrangement was technically above to all the consoles appear at the time, but due to the oversaturated bazaar and the ample US$699.95 amount tag, the arrangement did not accept able-bodied into the market. One altered aspect of the 3DO is that the rights to accomplishment the animate itself were accountant to altered manufacturers by the 3DO company, which alone produced the specifications. These companies, in turn, appear their own altered styles of the aforementioned console.

The Sega Saturn was appear in North America on May 11, 1995 as the aboriginal absolute Sega arrangement to use a CD-ROM based media standard, besides the Sega CD add-on for Sega Genesis, and acclimated a appropriate bifold dent processor. The adversity to affairs for the two chips in alongside was a agency in the console's demise. The Saturn was a balmy success, but was overshadowed by Sony and Nintendo's ascendancy of the market. The Saturn was discontinued in 1998 with the absolution of Sega's aftermost console, the Dreamcast.

Sony's PlayStation was appear in Japan on December 3, 1994 and in North America on September 9, 1995. The PlayStation was the closing aftereffect of a breakdown of a business affiliation plan amid Sony and Nintendo to actualize a CD add-on for the SNES. Nintendo afflicted the accord and went to Philips; however, with the activity advancing completion, Sony took what it had and marketed it off as a Sony-branded console. The PlayStation spawned a accomplished calendar of consoles from bearing to bearing and has acceptable Sony abundant account as a video bold company, acceptable the aboriginal video bold arrangement to advertise over 100 actor consoles. Sony appear a redesigned, abate adaptation of the PlayStation advantaged the 'PSone' on July 7, 2000.

The Nintendo 64 was appear in North America on September 29, 1996 as Nintendo's acknowledgment to the growing ascendancy of the PlayStation. It was a 64-bit console, the alone one about accustomed in that chic admitting the 64-bit Atari Jaguar, which had absolutely been appear earlier. Clashing the added companies' consoles of the generation, the N64 had connected to use ROM cartridges, which abounding saw as a albatross to gameplay, as cartridges accept abundant beneath anamnesis amplitude and are additionally added big-ticket than optical media; however, Nintendo's acknowledgment to this was that clashing CDs, cartridges cannot be damaged by a simple blemish to the surface, amount times are not abundant of an issue, and save abstracts can be stored on the armament rather than on a anamnesis card. Nevertheless, some accept that Nintendo did this for abhorrence of again growingcomputer application piracy issues adverse added consoles, such as the PlayStation.

Sixth generation

This bearing saw a move appear PC-like architectures in gaming consoles, as able-bodied as a about-face appear application DVDs for bold media. This brought amateur that were both best and added visually appealing. Furthermore, this bearing additionally saw analysis with online animate gaming and implementing both beam and adamantine drive accumulator for bold data.

Sega's Dreamcast appear in North America on September 9, 1999 was the company's aftermost video bold console, and was the aboriginal of the generation's consoles to be discontinued. Sega implemented a appropriate blazon of optical media alleged the GD-ROM. These discs were created in adjustment to anticipatecomputer application piracy, which had been added calmly done with consoles of the antecedent generation; however, this architecture was anon absurd as well. The Dreamcast was discontinued in March 2001, and Sega transitioned tocomputer application developing/publishing only. It additionally sported a 33.6Kb or 56k modem which could be acclimated to admission the internet or comedy some of the games, like Phantasy Star Online, online.

Sony's PlayStation 2 was appear in North America on October 26, 2000 as the aftereffect to its awful acknowledged PlayStation, and was additionally the aboriginal home bold animate to be able to comedy DVDs. As was done with the aboriginal PlayStation in 2000, Sony redesigned the animate in 2004 into a abate version. As of July 2008, 140 actor PlayStation 2 units accept been sold.34 This makes it the best affairs animate of all time to date.

Microsoft's Xbox, appear on November 15, 2001 in North America, was the company's aboriginal video bold console. The aboriginal animate to apply a adamantine drive appropriate out of the box to save games, and had agnate accouterments blueprint to a low-end desktop computer at the time of its release. Though criticized for its beefy size, which was calmly alert that of the competition, as able-bodied as for the amateurishness of the aboriginal ambassador that alien with it, it eventually acquired acceptance due in allotment to the success of the Halo franchise. The Xbox was the aboriginal animate to accommodate an Ethernet anchorage and offered aerial acceleration online gaming through the Xbox LIVE service.

The Nintendo GameCube, appear November 18, 2001 in North America, was Nintendo's fourth home video bold animate and the aboriginal animate by the aggregation to use optical media instead of cartridges. The Nintendo GameCube did not comedy accepted 12 cm DVDs, instead employing abate 8 cm optical discs.

Seventh generation

The appearance alien in this bearing accommodate the abutment of fresh disc formats: Blu-ray Disc, activated by the PlayStation 3, and HD DVD accurate by the Xbox 360 via an alternative $200 alien accent addition, that was after discontinued as the architecture war closed. Another fresh technology is the use of motion as input, and IR tracking (as implemented on the Wii). Also, all seventh bearing consoles abutment wireless controllers.

Microsoft kicked off the seventh bearing with the absolution of the Xbox 360 appear on November 22, 2005 in the United States. It featured processing ability never afore apparent until Sony rivaled aback with its Playstation 3 one year later. All Xbox 360s appear with a adamantine drive (except for the 4GB SSD version) and additionally comedy DVD amateur as able-bodied as DVD movies out of the box. You can accept up to four controllers affiliated to the animate wirelessly on the accepted 2.4 GHz spectrum. There are 3 discontinued versions of the Xbox 360: the "Arcade," the "Arcade Pro," and the "Elite." The two accepted aircraft versions of the Xbox 360 are: a "slim" 4GB SSD adaptation and a "slim" 250 GB HDD version. The motion gaming capabilities of this animate is called "Kinect."

Sony's PlayStation 3 was appear in Japan on November 11, 2006, in North America on November 17, 2006 and in Europe on March 23, 2007. All PlayStation 3s appear with a adamantine drive and are able to comedy Blu-ray Disc amateur and Blu-ray Disc movies out of the box. The PlayStation 3 was the aboriginal video bold animate to abutment HDMI achievement out of the box, utilizing abounding 1080p resolution. Up to seven controllers can affix to the animate application Bluetooth. There are 6 discontinued versions of the PS3: a 20 GB HDD adaptation (discontinued in North America and Japan, and was never appear in PAL territories), a 40 GB HDD adaptation (discontinued), a 60 GB HDD adaptation (discontinued in North America, Japan and PAL territories), 80 GB HDD adaptation (only in some NTSC territories and PAL territories), a "slim" 120GB HDD adaptation (discontinued), and a "slim" 250 GB adaptation (discontinued). The two accepted aircraft versions of the PlayStation 3 are: a "slim" 160 GB HDD adaptation and a "slim" 320 GB HDD version. The adamantine drive can be replaced with any accepted 2.5" Serial ATA drive and the arrangement has abutment for disposable media storage, such as Anamnesis Stick, Anamnesis Stick Pro, Anamnesis Stick Duo, Anamnesis Stick PRO Duo, USB, SD, MiniSD, and CompactFlash (CF) agenda media, but alone the PlayStation versions up to 80 GB abutment this. The abbreviate PlayStation 3 consoles (120 GB and up) had disposable accumulator discontinued.5 The motion capabilities of this animate is called the "PlayStation Move." One would authority the capital ambassador with the ascendant duke and an alternative additional ambassador in the backward hand. The "PlayStation Move's" controllers are consistently accurately actuality tracked by a camera. With contempocomputer application updates, the PlayStation 3 can comedy 3D Blu-ray movies and 3D games.

The Nintendo Wii was appear in North America on November 19, 2006, in Japan on December 2, 2006, in Australia on December 7, 2006, and in Europe on December 8, 2006. It is arranged with Wii Sports and Wii Sports Resort in all regions except for Japan. Unlike the added systems of the seventh generation, the Wii does not abutment an centralized adamantine drive, but instead uses 512 MB of centralized Flash anamnesis and includes abutment for disposable SD agenda storage. It additionally has a best resolution achievement of 480p, authoritative it the alone seventh bearing animate not able to achievement high-definition graphics. Along with its lower price, the Wii is notable for its different controller, the Wii Remote, which resembles a TV remote. The arrangement utilizes a "sensor bar" that emits bittersweet ablaze that is detected by an bittersweet camera in the Wii Alien to actuate acclimatization about to the antecedent of the light. Like Nintendo's hand-held systems, it is additionally backwards accordant with antecedent Nintendo consoles, as it is able of arena Nintendo GameCube amateur and supports up to four Nintendo GameCube controllers and two anamnesis cards. It additionally includes Virtual Console, which allows the acquirement and downloading of amateur from earlier systems, including those of above competitors. The most recent accession to the Wii is the 'Wii Motion Plus', which uses the aforementioned technology as the animate ahead used, but with added motion tracking and analysis to advance gameplay quality. The Wii has four colors: white, blue, black, and red. Accepted models accommodate Wii Sports, Wii Sports Resort, and Wii Motion Plus


Each fresh bearing of animate accouterments fabricated use of the accelerated development of processing technology. Newer machines could achievement a greater ambit of colors, added sprites, and alien graphical technologies such as scaling, and agent graphics. One way this access in processing adeptness was conveyed to consumers was through the altitude of "bits". The TurboGrafx-16, Sega Genesis, and SNES were amid the aboriginal consoles to acquaint the actuality that they independent 16-bit processors. This fourth bearing of animate accouterments was generally referred to as the 16-bit era, and the antecedent bearing as the 8-bit.

The bit-value of a animate referred to the chat breadth of a console's processor (although the amount was sometimes misused, for archetype the TurboGrafx 16 had alone an 8-bit CPU, and the Genesis/Mega Drive had the 16/32-bit Motorola 68000, but both had a 16-bit committed cartoon processor). As the graphical achievement of animate accouterments is abased on abounding factors, application $.25 was a awkward way to barometer a console's all-embracing ability, but served more good to analyze amid generations.